Overview of Digital Euro Package

July 19, 2023

This is a placeholder for @euro WG work on digital euro and ID.


The Digital Euro Package is a proposal from the European Commission to protect the use of cash and enable digital euro for online and offline payments. This document provides an overview of the EC proposal from a privacy and technical standpoint. Further work on this topic is being prepared by the EDRi network.


Public and Private Money

There are two types of money: public and private.

Wholesale and Retail Money

Wholesale money refers to the large sums of money lent by financial institutions in the money markets. This wholesale banking encompasses the market for tradable securities, such as Treasury bills, commercial paper, bankers’ acceptances, foreign or brokered deposits, certificates of deposit, bills of exchange, repo agreements, federal funds, and short-lived mortgage and asset-backed securities. souce Investopedia

Fiat Cash and Digital Cash

EC Proposal



Account-based retail money is an implementation nightmare for everyone

Privacy issues

Licensing issues

Security issues

Implementation complexity

The Case for Token-based Digital Euro